Your Clothes 3/4
Rectangular label made of real or imitation leather, normally sewn to
the rear waistband of a pair of jeans, above the right hip pocket. The leather tag often
bears the size and lot number of the jeans, as well as the brand logo.
Term indicating the direction of the denim weave. This type has the
diagonal twill line rising to the left, which provides a very soft texture after washing
but which is also much more difficult to produce, since it requires more attention in the
sanforization and finishing processes.
Jeans lengths are measured along the inseam, from crotch to hem. The
shortest commercial adult jeans leg is 20 inches, the longest can reach 38.
Individually designed name or graphic symbol characteristic of each
company or brand.
Weaving apparatus that produces fabric by interlacing a series of
vertical parallel threads (warp) with a series of horizontal parallel threads (filling or
weft). The oldest American loom is the Draper shuttle loom, originally weaving a 75 cm
width. The most modem one is the air jet (600 strokes a minute).
A trademark of the multinational fiber company Du Pont de Nemours,
introduced in the early '60s. An elastan fiber originally launched for the swimwear and
lingerie market, it came to be used in jersey, sportswear and jeanswear fabrics.
Erroneously synonymous with stretch.
Another word for acid wash. Some crushed denims, if strongly bleached,
are also called marble.
Term referring to denim fabric that is delivered already washed to
cutters or garment manufacturers.
A mature cotton from the American South with a high tanin content that
gives a vintage look when indigo-dyed. The fruits of this cotton become the
"mother" of the next year's crop, hence the name.
A type of ring-ring denim, naturally uneven in warp and weft.
An industrial, highly efficient type of yarn spinning technology that
utilises turbine machinery. Faster and less expensive than the original ring-spun system,
it produces denim fabrics that have a more regular, flatter appearance. Often referred to
by the initials O.E.
Name given to an indigo dye that has a slightly reddish tint. Was used
by Levi's to make the Big E. The dyeing formula originally included actual corn syrup.
Also known as Happy Days, Violet Blue, Heavy Blue.
Jeanswear's great American heritage-cult and collectors' items from the
early years of the jeans
Opposite of inseam. The pants seam that runs along the outside of the
leg, from waist to hem.
A loose, one-piece garment made of denim or canvas that incorporates
jeans-style pants with a bib front and suspender straps. Popular both for its
functionality and as fashion. In Europe, more commonly known as a bib 'n' brace or
salopette, while the word overalls is used to designate a one-piece, long-sleeved
work wear garment.
A process that can take many forms. The blue yarn can be overdyed black,
known as black change blue. Blue or black denim can also be overdyed with contrasting
brilliant colours, for unusual shade effects. Or indigo jeans can be bleached to neutral
and then overdyed with a vivid bright color.
Made from yarn that is over twisted, giving the fabric a particular
An abbreviation for ounces. Denim is weighed in oz. per square yard.
A very loose and large waistline that when cinched with a belt gives the
appearance of a paper bag that has been gathered at the top.
Made from either recycled pieces of denim or with colorful patches of
other fabrics. Normally a form of do-it-yourself customized jeans, they can also be
produced on a commercial scale.
Ankle-length womenswear jeans style with the distinctive "X"
pockets in the front, invented by Marithe and Francois Girbaud for the Italian label
Closed in 1980-81. It became world famous and widely copied.
Denim finish developed in 1992 by the U.S. brand WilliWear. A left-hand
denim is enzyme-washed until it has lost most of its color. It is then overdyed and put
through a silicone wash, which gives it an oily coating, and, in turn, a super-soft,
A plain-normally made with two guide bars, that shows pronounced cord effects in the warp
A plain-weave fabric with sunken lines between rounded cords and having a plain-weave
Term referring to the process of dyeing pieces of fabric, rather than
A kind of dyestuff that coats the fabric. The color remains on the
surface and easily washes away, fading. Pigments are available in a wide range of
PINTO WASH DENIM
A product of Cone Mills, USA; said to be the first bleached denim. In
1969, in Greensboro, North Carolina, a hurricane flooded local Cone Mills plants and
warehouses. Millions of yards of denim were soaked with water and had to be dried
immediately to avoid mildewing. It seemed a catastrophe, but a Cone Mills merchandiser in
the New York office came up with an idea: run the fabric irregularly through a solution to
remove the dye and give the denim a faded and mottled appearance. Designers, manufacturers
and young consumers all jumped on the new product, making Pinto Wash Denim an instant
Term used to describe sanding that is concentrated in certain areas,
such as the bottom, knees and pockets, to create a natural worn-out look. Also known as
A form of finishing that gives a stonewashed appearance to jeanswear
using natural earth pigments. It looks real, but it's a trompe l'oeil.
Common feature of jeans. The rear pockets are stitched in a decorative
pattern, sometimes trademarked, which helps distinguish the brand. For a period in the
'70s, elaborate pocket stitching, often in white as well as gold thread, was a dominant
trend. In the '80s, with the return of basic style, pocket stitching also returned to a
A manufactured fabric composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having
in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of an ester of a diol and benzene-1,4- dicarboxylic
The growing jeans industry's answer to the original Levi's concept of
shrink-to-fit. In 1947, Blue Bell introduced the first Wrangler jeans, which were
sanforised, or pre-shrunk, guaranteeing less than two percent further shrinkage. Other
companies followed suit. In 1959, Levi Strauss offered the first pre-shrunk 50s.
Denim that has been printed with a pattern-a batik, stripe or floral,
for example- often in contrasting colors and aimed at a very young market.
A shortened dyeing process normally used for chambray and lightweight
denims, in which the number of indigo dips are reduced to two or four, instead of the
usual six to eight, resulting in a lighter shade of blue.
A classic denim from the early '80s by Burlington Denim. The 14 3/4 oz.
all cotton, right-hand indigo fabric, designed to wash down fast, was first produced for
stonewashing and is no longer made. It evolved into Burlington's style no. 3885, another
14 3/4 oz. denim that is used as a basic by jeans makers in the U.S.
Patented oxidation process developed by Tessitura di Robecchetto
Candiani in 1992 that speeds up the skying step of the indigo dyeing process and therefore
shortens the indigo dyeing technique.
A special synthetic dyestuff that's a lighter shade of blue, originally
used as an alternative to real indigo when there was a shortage of the natural dye. Had a
peak period in the '60s, and resurfaced as a selling attraction in the '90s. Also known as
A novelty use of denim-turned inside out to give jeans a really
Denim's original weaving construction, in which the twill line rises
diagonally to the right.
A traditional type of denim fabric, revived in the late '80s and early
'90s, using ring-spun yarn for the warp. Characterized by a softer hand and an uneven